Here’s a look at the Norwegian terrorist attacks on July 22, 2011. Eight people died in a bombing in Oslo and 69 young people died on nearby Utoya island. This was the deadliest attack in Norway since World War II.
Anders Behring Breivik
Pronounced: AHn-ders BRAY-vick
No military background or training.
Described as a right-wing Christian extremist, with a hatred of Muslims.
Reportedly the author of a 1,500 page manifesto, called “2083: A European Declaration of Independence,” critical of Muslim immigration and European liberalism.
He registered a farm in Rena, in eastern Norway, which allowed him access to large amounts of fertilizer.
The young people killed on Utoya island (Pronounced: Oo-TOY-ah) were attending a Labour Party youth camp. Most of the 700 campers ranged in age from 16 to 22, some as young as 13.
Norway does not have the death penalty.
July 22, 2011 – At approximately 3:26 p.m., a fertilizer bomb explodes outside the building housing the office of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg. Eight people are killed in the bombing.
– After the bombing, Anders Behring Breivik takes a short ferry ride to Utoya island, approximately 20 miles from Oslo.
– Breivik, who was wearing a police uniform, opens fire on young adults at a Labour Party youth camp. He roams the grounds of the island, killing campers trying to escape.
– At approximately 6:27 p.m., Breivik is taken into custody by members of an elite Norwegian police unit.
July 25, 2011 – Breivik attends his first court hearing, which is closed.
– His request to wear a uniform to court is denied.
– He is prevented from reading from his manifesto during the court hearing.
– Breivik claims to be working with two other cells of terrorists.
– Two court psychiatrists are assigned to the case.
– He is ordered to be held for eight weeks until his next court hearing. The first four weeks of detention will be in solitary confinement. He will not be allowed contact with anyone except his lawyer. He also will not be allowed mail or news.
August 19, 2011 – The families of the victims visit Utoya island.
August 19, 2011 – A judge rules that Breivik should be held in solitary confinement for another four weeks.
September 19, 2011 – A judge rules that Breivik will remain in solitary confinement for another four weeks.
November 14, 2011 – More than 500 people attend Breivik’s first court hearing, which is open to the public. Breivik is not allowed to deliver a speech he prepared, and the judge orders him held in custody for another 12 weeks.
November 29, 2011 – Police announce that Breivik is insane, stating that psychiatrists had found him paranoid and schizophrenic. They say that he suffers from “grandiose delusions.”
January 13, 2012 – Judge Wenche Elizabeth Arntzen announces that the court wants a second opinion from psychiatrists concerning Breivik’s sanity.
February 10, 2012 – A Norwegian court orders Breivik undergo psychiatric monitoring as experts seek to determine his mental state ahead of a trial.
March 7, 2012 – Breivik is formally charged with committing acts of terror and voluntary homicide.
April 10, 2012 – Two psychiatric experts release their findings, which the judge uses to deem Breivik sane at the time of the crimes. The experts’ findings state that during the commission of the crimes Breivik was not psychotic, not suffering from any psychiatric condition and is not mentally challenged.
April 16, 2012 – Trial begins.
April 17, 2012 – Judge Thomas Indrebo is disqualified for saying online that the death penalty is the right punishment for Breivik. Norway does not have the death penalty.
June 21, 2012 – A spokesperson for the Norwegian Prosecutor’s office confirms that prosecutors have asked that Breivik be transferred to a psychiatric institution, as they believe he is ill.
June 22, 2012 – On the last day of his trial, Breivik addresses the court and describes his actions as “barbaric.“
August 13, 2012 – An independent report finds that the terror attack could have been avoided. The report cites slow reaction times by police and security forces, under-staffing and the failure of leadership.
August 24, 2012 – Breivik is judged sane and sentenced to 21 years in prison. Twenty-one years is the maximum possible sentence, but it could be extended if he is still considered a threat to society.
March 15, 2016 – Breivik appears for the first day of his lawsuit against the Norwegian state, alleging his human rights have been violated during his incarceration.
April 20, 2016 – Breivik wins part of his lawsuit against the state over his solitary confinement in prison. The Oslo district court announces that Breivik’s treatment in prison violates Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights, prohibiting “inhuman or degrading treatment,” and rules that his conditions must be eased.
March 1, 2017 – An appeals court overturns the lower court ruling that Breivik’s jail conditions have been inhuman.
June 8, 2017 – Norway’s Supreme Court says that it will not hear Breivik’s case over “inhumane” prison conditions.
June 9, 2017 – Breivik’s lawyer confirms that Breivik legally changed his name to Fjotolf Hansen.
June 21, 2018 – The European Court of Human Rights rejects Breivik’s appeal that the conditions of his imprisonment, largely in isolation, are violating his human rights. The decision is final, the court says.